Metrogiprotrans is one of the most important architectural companies in Russia. It was founded in 1933 Company’s architects created a unique and wonderful world of underground architecture. Recently, a whole series of interesting projects has appeared in transport architecture of Moscow. First of all, those are the new metro stations, automobile bridges and underground railway terminals. All the projects were designed by a transport design the oldest specialized company in Russia.
Metrogiprotrans history is unique demonstration of professional community development within one institution. Acting under different social, political and economic conditions, the Institute was capable to find the ways and resources to address the problems posed to the Institute throughout 85 years. Ideas and solutions found in the process of designing the facilities different in scale, purpose and geography, were accumulated in the box of valuable experience shared by employees’ generations fr om hands to hands. Continuity of this experience is the essence and value of knowledge which are implemented today in the new project practices. The Institute management has the special mission — to preserve the unique personnel of discipline engineers, wh ere each person is the bearer of some portion of this accumulated experience.
The third interchange circuit was opened (6 stations of the Kalininsko-Solntsevskaya line — Delovoy Tsentr, Khoroshevskaya, Shelepikha, CSKA, Petrovsky Park and Michurinsky Prospekt, Ochakovo).
The Park Pobedy — Ramenki section of the Moscow Metro Solntsevskaya line, and also Minskaya, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, Ramenki stations were commissioned. The second exit-hall from the Park Pobedy station of the Moscow Metro was opened.
The Mariina Roscha — Petrovsko-Razumovskaya section of the Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya line, and also Butyrskaya, Fonvizinskaya, Petrovsko-Razumovskaya stations were put into operation. The second exit from the Butyrskaya and Fonvizinskaya stations of the Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya line and the third exit from the Petrovsko-Razumovskaya station were opened.
The section Delovoy Tsentr — Park Pobedy of the Moscow Metro Solntsevskaya line, 2nd platform: Park Pobedy was commissioned. The Ulitsa Starokachalovskaya — Bitsevsky Park section of the Butovskaya Line, also Lesoparkovaya and Bitsevsky Park stations were opened.
The control center building in the form of a glass egg was built in 2013 as part of the transport intersection of the Leningradskoye Shosse and Volokolamskoye Shosse, at their intersection with Alabyana and Baltiyskaya Streets. The size of the egg in the plan was 32 by 23 meters.
The southern hall of the Annino station. The Novogireevo — Novokosino section of the Kalininskaya line, and also Novokosino station, were opened. The Krasnogvardeyskaya — Alma-Atinskaya section of the Zamoskvoretskaya line, and Alma-Atinskaya station were opened. The Mitino — Pyatnitskoye Shosse section of the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line.
A passway and an entrance hall of the Sretensky Bulvar station of the Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya line were opened. The Mariino — Zyablikovo section of the Moscow Metro Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya line, and also Borisovo, Shipilovskaya and Zyablikovo stations were put into operation.
The Trubnaya — Mariina Roscha section of the Moscow Metro Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya line, Trubnaya, Maryina Roshcha stations were opened.
Crossing between the Chistye Prudy station of the Sokolnicheskaya Line and Sretensky Bulvar of the Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya line was put into operation. The Slavyansky Bulvar station was opened on the operating plain track of the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line.
The section of the Zvenigorodskaya (Krasnopresnenskaya) highway was opened for traffic from Marshal Zhukov prospect to MKAD (7 km), including Zhivopisny most and Northwest tunnels.
The Trubnaya station was commissioned. The Sretensky Bulvar station was opened on the operating plain track of the Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya line.
The Kiyevskaya-Vystavochnaya section of the Filyovskaya line, and the Vystavochnaya station were put into operation. The second entrance is opened to the north entrance hall at the Mayakovskaya station.
Underground, ground and air transport was combined into one global communication system: from the Moscow center, from the Kievsky railway station, it will take 35 minutes to get to the plane at the Vnukovo airport.
The Moscow monorail transport system with six stations was opened for excursions.
The Park Pobedy station was 74 meters deep. The first Moscow metro line, Butovskaya, with a length of 5.6 km, and also stations — Ulitsa Starokachalovskaya, Ulitsa Skobelevskaya, Bulvar Admirala Ushakova, Ulitsa Gorchakova, and Buninskaya Alleya — were put into operation.
The Bulvar Dmitriya Donskogo station was opened on Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya line. From that moment the Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya line became the longest metro line in the world, entirely under the ground, and gained the upper hand from the Kalujsko-Rijskaya line. The Moscow Metro has 165 stations, line length — 280 km.
Metrogiprotrans specialists developed the project of Sakhalin railway tunnel under the Nevelski strait, which would connect Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Selikhin and Nogliki.
Underground multilevel transport junction on Kutuzovsky Prospekt won the prize as «The best implemented project 1990-2000.» Valery Mikhailovich Abramson held the office of president of OJSC Metrogiprotrans.
The Lefortovsky tunnel in Moscow, which was opened in 2003, was the fourth largest city tunnel in Europe, lying at a depth of about 30 meters. The tunnel is 2.2 kilometers long and 14.2 meters in diameter. It was the workmanship of institute designers. Its construction minimally affected the nearby urban areas.
The Metrogiprotrans experts participated in the metro construction in Tehran. The surveys have been carried out to examine the constructed tunnels and design work on adjusting the metro line for the purpose of using the Russian rolling stock.
At Myasnitskaya St. in Moscow, the eight-level underground parking was opened; it was constructed by the open caisson method in order to preserve the surrounding urban development of the 19 th century.
The engineers of Metrogiprotrans developed a new design for the reinforced concrete encasement of the escalator tunnel with an outer diameter of 9.9 meters from blocks 40 cm thick. The new design significantly increased its throughput.
The first 12.2 km section of the Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya line from the Chkalovskaya station to the Volzhskaya station was put into operation on December 28. The stations of this branch demonstrated a wide variety of structures.
In the city of Vidnoe, a road tunnel was built inside the railway embankment under the main railway tracks.
Metrogiprotrans ceased to be a government-owned enterprise, and became an Open Joint Stock Company. In the first years after the Soviet Union ceased to exist, the projects started in Soviet times were basically completed. Timiryazevskaya branch expanded northwards — the Bibirevo station was opened in 1992, and in two years the Altufyevo station.
The following stations were being constructed: Filyovskaya branch continued to the Krylatskaya station, and the Sokolnicheskaya branch to the Ulitsa Podbelskogo station. Metrogiprotrans was designing the Mosca metro station in Rome.
Metrogiprotrans specialists acted as consultants within the metro and railway tunnel construction project underneath the Bosphorus Strait, the deepest submarine tunnel in the world. In Leningrad, automated systems for controlling air parameters and an automated remote control system for tunnel ventilation were put into operation.
A 4.2 km Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya line section with Tsvetnoy Bulvar, Mendeleevskaya and Savyolovskaya stations was commissioned in Moscow on December 31.
In the eighties, the subway architecture continued to move from pure utilitarianism of the sixties to a new imagery and diversity. The 1.6 km Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya line started operating from the Borovitskaya station to the Chekhovskaya station. The architecture of the Polyanka, Borovitskaya, Chekhovskaya stations was emphatically symbolic, even literary.
The Peruvian design studies for the construction of the first metro line were considered, the design recommendations and proposals were provided, and the possibility of supplying the Soviet equipment for the line construction and operation was discussed.
The Institute participated in the reconstruction of the Salang tunnel in Afghanistan. This road tunnel was built by Soviet specialists in 1958-1964. It was considered to be the highest road tunnel in the world until 1973. Metrogiprotrans was awarded the Order of the October Revolution.
The first metro phase from Institut Kultury station to the Moskovskaya station was put into operation. Metrogiprotrans developed a feasibility study for the construction of the first metro phase and a technical project.
A 13 km section of the Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya line of the Moscow Metro was launched from the Serpukhovskaya station to the Yuzhnaya station on November 8.
The basic safety system and train operation with protective sites and electromechanical hitchhiking was developed. Air automatic performance management system and an automated ventilation control system were put into operation.
With the participation of the Institute, the first subway line in Yerevan consisting of 5 stations was opened: from the Druzhba station to the Sasuntsi David station.
A new deep station design was developed — a column-pylon type, in which two lateral tunnels had a diameter of 8.5 m and a central tunnel — 9.5 m.
For the first time in the world, designers were able to build a subway station at great depths (depth of laying — 42 meters) without interrupting the work of the line and arranging the auxiliary track in bypass tunnels.
The Tverskaya (Gorkovskaya) station was opened on the Zamoskvoretskaya branch between Mayakovskaya and Teatralnaya stations.
In Moscow, a 11.4 km section of the Kalininsky radius from the Marksistskaya station to the Novogireevo station was opened.
A noise-attenuating gallery was built at the Smolensk metro bridge of the Filyovskaya line opened in 1937. The Kalujsko-Rijskaya line of the Moscow metro was extended from the VDNKh station to the Medvedkovo station.
The first subway phase from Sabir Rakhimov station to the Oktyabrskaya Revolutsiya was put into operation. Metrogiprotrans developed a project building for the construction of the first metro line.
A conclusion was drawn on the main engineering design solutions of the first operational section of the first metro line in Sofia.
The first metro line in Kharkiv was opened on August 23 — 8 stations, the length 10.6 km. The northern and southern sections of the Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya line were connected through Pushkinskaya and Kuznetsky Most stations in the city center. Simultaneously, the line was extended to new areas far to the north — to the Planernaya station.
Metrogiprotrans actively performed design work in the union republics abroad. Metrogiprotrans provided technical support to the subway developers and builders in Prague; the metro was opened in 1974.
Since the beginning of the 1970s the Moscow metro has entered a new stage of its development, the «third way», flexibly combining industrial methods and the individual approach of the Stalin era. Modernization of typical stations, built on the city outskirts, ensures a greater variety of architectural solutions.
The northern and southern sections of the Kalujsko-Rijskaya branch were connected through deep Turgenevskaya and Sukharevskaya (Kolkhoznaya) stations. Then the northern part of the Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya branch was opened from the Barrikadnaya to the Oktyabrskoye Pole station.
Kalujsko-Rijskaya and Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya lines were united in the center of the city by a Kitay-Gorod combined station (Ploschad Nogina). It was a unique dual station with two platforms and four tracks, the first typical deep-station station.
To the 100 th anniversary of the birth of V.I. Lenin in 1970, all the ventilation shafts, located in the Moscow Metro tunnels were fully equipped with remote control. The Metrogiprotrans engineers began to use computers to automate the calculation of reinforced concrete structures.
A 9.5 km section of the Zamoskvoretskaya line from the Avtozavodskaya station to the Kakhovskaya station, and a 3.4 km section from the Kakhovskaya station to the Kashirskaya station, which in 1995 was transformed into an independent Kakhovskaya line, were put into operation on August 11.
The metro operated in five cities by 1967 in the USSR: Moscow (1935), Leningrad (1955), Kiev (1961), Tbilisi (1966), Baku (1967) — all of them were developed by local branches headed by Metrogiprotrans.
The irrigation tunnels for the Yavan and Obi-Kiik valleys in Tajikistan were completed within the Metrogiprotrans project. A 2.9 km section of the Zhdanovskaya line of the Moscow Metro was launched from the Taganskaya station to the Zhdanovskaya station on December 31.
The sections from the Pervomayskaya station to the Shchelkovskaya station, from the Universitet station to the Yugo-Zapadnaya station, from Novye Cheryomushki to Kalujskaya stations, from Sokol to Rechnoy Vokzal stations, from Pionerskaya to Molodezhnaya stations, finally, from the Sokolniki station to the Preobrazhenskaya ploshchad station were opened.
Moscow was growing in breadth, this required the operational provision of a transport connection between the center and the outskirts. The speed of laying tunnels began to reach 320 m per month.
The 8.1 km Kalujskaya Line of the Moscow metro from Oktyabrskaya station to the Novye Cheryomushki station was commissioned on October 13.
In Moscow, a 3.6 km section of the Filyovskaya line from the Fili station to the Pionerskaya station and a 3.2 km section of the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line from the Izmaylovskiy Park station (Izmailovskaya) to the Pervomaiskaya station were accepted.
During the construction of the Kalujsky radius of the Moscow Metro, the so-called «Moscow method» was used for the first time, which includes construction of stations in open pits, and the running tunnels — without exposing the ground surface by means of shield tunneling. The first subway phase was commissioned in Kiev — 5 stations, 5.2 km.
The section of the Sokolnicheskaya branch — «Sportivnaya — Universitet» was opened with the first world’s station located on the bridge — Leninskiye Gory. The Arbatskaya line was extended from the Kutuzovskaya station to the Fili station. A typical design of shallow stations from unified elements — «centipedes» — was developed. Its image became dominant in the Moscow Metro for years to come.
Metrogiprotrans developed the first domestic tunneling shield, which won the Grand Prix at the World Exhibition in Brussels. Construction of a transport tunnel under the October Square in Moscow. On May 1, a 4.5 km section of the Rijskaya Line from the Prospekt Mira station to the VDNKH station was opened. A 2.4 km section from the Kiyevskaya station to the Kutuzovskaya station was commissioned on November 7, 1958.
On May 1 — the Kirovsko-Frunzenskaya line was extended by a 2.5 km section from the Park Kultury station to the Sportivnaya station.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the USSR, headed by Nikita Khrushchev, issued a decree on eliminating excesses in design and construction. The decorative redundancy of the Stalin era buildings was sharply criticized, the luxury was replaced with simplicity and clarity.
On November 15 — the first phase of the Leningrad subway from the Avtovo station to the Ploschad’ Vosstaniya station was put into operation. This is the first metro built within the Metrogiprotrans project in another city.
A 5.9 km section of the Circle Line from the Belorusskaya station to the Park Kultury station was commissioned on March 14. The Moscow Metro has 44 stations, line length — 62 km.
The Susamyr road tunnel project on the Frunze highway (Bishkek) — Osh in Kyrgyzstan was being developed. The project was completed in 1967. A 4 km section from the Arbatskaya station to the Kievskaya station was opened on April 5.
During this period, the stations were designed mostly by military exploits and the heroic work of Soviet people behind the lines. The stations are united by solemnity, while stylistically they are diverse. A 7 km section of the Circle Line from the Kurskaya station to the Belorusskaya station was commissioned on January 30.
Metrogiprotrans and Minskmetroproekt provide technical assistance to the People’s Republic of Poland in the subway design and construction (1951 — 1987).
After the victorious completion of the Great Patriotic War, the metro was being constructed with even greater enthusiasm. The design of the stations became more magnificent and solemn, affirming the USSR image as a superpower.
The section of the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line from the Kurskaya station to the Partizanskaya station (Izmailovsky Park) started to work on January 18. The stations are designed mostly in a military style, glorifying the victories of the Red Army. On May 15 the Electrozavodskaya station was opened. The Moscow metro has 29 stations, the length of the route is 36.6 km.
On November 20 the Novokuznetskaya and Paveletskaya stations were opened.
The metro construction was resumed in 1942, as soon as the threat of the city’s capture by the fascists was past. Since most men were off at the front, 70% of the workforce were women.
During the war, the metro was used as a bomb shelter. During the air attacks, 217 children were born in the subway. Later, with the advent of nuclear weapons and the beginning of the Cold War, the subway was reequipped, taking into account the new circumstances.
Line length — 24.5 km.
In 1939, the government decided to build a metro in Leningrad, and Metroproekt joined the committee to develop it. In 1941, in Leningrad, the first Metroproekt branch, Lenmetroproekt, was established.
The second phase of the metro was completed only three years after the opening of the first one. Three metro lines, intersecting in the very heart of the city, formed a large underground complex. During the construction of the second phase, 42 shields worked simultaneously on the tracks — this is an absolute world record.
At the World Exhibition in Paris, the Kropotkinskaya station (Dvorets Sovetov), Krasnye Vorota and Sokolniki stations won the Grand Prix. In the same year, the branch of the Sokolniki metro line beginning from the Smolenskaya station to the Kievskaya station was constructed. The first metro bridge across the Moskva River was built by the architects Constantine and Yuri Yakovlev.
In the second half of the thirties, Moscow was radically reorganized according to the General Layout approved in 1935. At that moment, the designers’ clear-sightedness became obvious: the circular concept of the subway appeared several years before the General Layout.
The Moscow Metro was opened on May 15, 1935. The first phase was launched thanks not only to subway tunnelers, but also to all Soviet industry. Orders received from the phase 1 construction of the Moscow Metro were performed by 540 factories throughout the Soviet Union. 13 stations of the Sokolnicheskaya branch were opened.
The Metroproekt engineers, having studied the experience in the New York and London subway construction, proposed to lay tunnels at great depth with the help of earth-penetrating shields, and the party leaders approved this strategy.
In 1933 the future Metrogiprotrans, as the Metroproekt Central Design Office, was created in order to implement the landmark plan aimed at the Moscow Metro establishment.